JDBC in Java


JDBC is an acronym for Java Database Connectivity. It’s advancement for ODBC (Open Database Connectivity). JDBC is a standard API specification developed in order to move data from frontend to backend.

The Java JDBC API (Java Database Connectivity) enables Java applications to connect to relational databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, MS SQL Server, Oracle, H2 Database etc. The JDBC API makes is possible to query and update relational databases.

Why JDBC came into existence?

As previously told JDBC is advancement for ODBC, ODBC being platform dependent had a lot of drawbacks. ODBC API was written in C,C++, Python, Core Java and as we know above languages (except Java and some part of Python ) are platform dependent . Therefore to remove dependence, JDBC was developed by database vendor which consisted of classes and interfaces written in Java.

JDBC in Java

Following is the architectural diagram, which shows the location of the driver manager with respect to the JDBC drivers and the Java application:

JDBC in Java

·         JDBC is Database Independent.

·         The JDBC API is not intended for non-relational databases like Mongo DB, Cassandra, Dynamo etc.

Common JDBC Components

The JDBC API provides the following interfaces and classes −

DriverManager:This class manages a list of database drivers. Matches connection requests from the java application with the proper database driver using communication sub protocol. The first driver that recognizes a certain sub protocol under JDBC will be used to establish a database Connection.

 Driver:This interface handles the communications with the database server. You will interact directly with Driver objects very rarely. Instead, you use DriverManager objects, which manage objects of this type. It also abstracts the details associated with working with Driver objects.

Connection:This interface with all methods for contacting a database. The connection object represents communication context, i.e., all communication with database is through connection object only.

Statement:You use objects created from this interface to submit the SQL statements to the database. Some derived interfaces accept parameters in addition to executing stored procedures.

ResultSet:These objects hold data retrieved from a database after you execute an SQL query using Statement objects. It acts as an iterator to allow you to move through its data.

SQLException:This class handles any errors that occur in a database application.

Steps for connectivity between Java program and database:

1. Loading the Driver

To begin with, you first need load the driver or register it before using it in the program. Registration is to be done once in your program. You can register a driver in one of two ways mentioned below :

Class.forName() : Here we load the driver’s class file into memory at the runtime. No need of using new or creation of object .The following example uses Class.forName() to load the Oracle driver –


 DriverManager.registerDriver(): DriverManager is a Java inbuilt class with a static member register. Here we call the constructor of the driver class at compile time . The following example uses DriverManager.registerDriver()to register the Oracle driver –

 DriverManager.registerDriver(new oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver())

2. Create the connections

After loading the driver, establish connections using :

 Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,password)

user – username from which your sql command prompt can be accessed.

password – password from which your sql command prompt can be accessed.


con: is a reference to Connection interface.

url : Uniform Resource Locator. It can be created as follows:


String url = “ jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:xe”

Where oracle is the database used, thin is the driver used , @localhost is the IP Address where database is stored, 1521 is the port number and xe is the service provider. All 3 parameters above are of String type and are to be declared by programmer before calling the function. Use of this can be referred from final code.


3. Create a statement

Once a connection is established you can interact with the database. The JDBCStatement, CallableStatement, and PreparedStatement interfaces define the methods that enable you to send SQL commands and receive data from your database.

Use of JDBC Statement is as follows:


Statement st = con.createStatement();

Here, con is a reference to Connection interface used in previous step .


4. Execute the query

Now comes the most important part i.e executing the query. Query here is an SQL Query . Now we know we can have multiple types of queries. Some of them are as follows:


Query for updating / inserting table in a database.

Query for retrieving data .

The executeQuery() method of Statement interface is used to execute queries of retrieving values from the database. This method returns the object of ResultSet that can be used to get all the records of a table.

The executeUpdate(sql query) method of Statement interface is used to execute queries of updating/inserting .




int m = st.executeUpdate(sql);

if (m==1)

    System.out.println(“inserted successfully : “+sql);


    System.out.println(“insertion failed”);

Here sql is sql query of the type String


5.Close the connections

So finally we have sent the data to the specified location and now we are at the verge of completion of our task .

By closing connection, objects of Statement and ResultSet will be closed automatically. The close() method of Connection interface is used to close the connection.

Example :







class Main


    public static void main(String a[])


        //Creating the connection

        String url = “jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:xe”;

        String user = “system”;

        String pass = “12345”;


        //Entering the data

        Scanner k = new Scanner(System.in);

        System.out.println(“enter name”);

        String name = k.next();

        System.out.println(“enter roll no”);

        int roll = k.nextInt();

        System.out.println(“enter class”);

        String cls =  k.next();


        //Inserting data using SQL query

        String sql = “insert into student1 values(‘”+name+”‘,”+roll+”,'”+cls+”‘)”;

        Connection con=null;



            DriverManager.registerDriver(new oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver());


            //Reference to connection interface

            con = DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,pass);


            Statement st = con.createStatement();

            int m = st.executeUpdate(sql);

            if (m == 1)

                System.out.println(“inserted successfully : “+sql);


                System.out.println(“insertion failed”);



        catch(Exception ex)








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